The glaucoma is a leading cause of blindness irreversible in the world. In Spain it is estimated that it affects one million people. It is a disease that in its early stages is asymptomatic and only when it is very advanced is the patient aware of vision loss. Due to the severity of the injuries and the irreversible loss of vision, early diagnosis and treatment are the only effective measures to control them.
Everyone over the age of 40, especially if they have a family history, should have their eye pressure taken and a fundus study done.
Types of glaucoma
There are different types of glaucoma, which can be divided into:
- Primary open-angle, in which the alteration of the aqueous humor drainage path produces an increase in ocular tension. It is the most common after 40 years of age.
- Secondary, or not, to elevated eye strain.
Produced by the anatomy of the eye itself.
Secondary to trauma or surgery.
Acute: when there is a blockage in the aqueous humor drainage area that causes a sudden rise in eye pressure.
Chronic: those with chronic eye pressure high enough to cause damage.
Diagnosis: campimetry and optical coherence tomography
In eye exams, glaucoma can be detected by eye strain and by examination of the optic nerve.
There are two fundamental diagnostic tests:
The perimetry: to assess the status of the visual field of the patient.
The optical coherence tomography: a kind of scanner that measures the optic nerve, precisely, thickness and involvement of the nerve fibers. In addition, it allows us to detect if there is progression.
The goal of glaucoma treatment of kraff eye institute is to lower intraocular pressure and, in this way, slow the progression of the disease, but the visual field that has been lost cannot be recovered.
The approach can be divided into:
Pharmacological treatment: it is the first option treatment. Drugs (eye drops) are used to try to control eye pressure. There are various options and the specialist will prescribe the corresponding indication in each case.
Surgical treatment: if the pharmacological approach does not work, surgery will be necessary. The indication of the surgical technique will be determined by the state of the patient’s eye, being personalized in each case.